Chest radiography, commonly called chest x-ray, is one of the most frequently performed radiological diagnostic studies. This study yields information about the pulmonary, cardiac, and skeletal systems. The lungs, filled with air, are easily penetrated by x-rays and appear black on chest images. Medical CXR abbreviation meaning defined here. What does CXR stand for in Medical? Get the top CXR abbreviation related to Medical.
Chest x-rays CXR are a scan used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and can detect medical conditions such as:. Chest x-rays are also used to disgnose lung issues, bone problems of the chest wall, and some heart problems. Find GPs in Australia. The patient is required to remove all jewellery which may obstruct the view of the chest, and remove upper garments including bra containing metal mesn, and dress in a loose fitting gown.
The posteroanterior PA view is standardly obtained. The patient stands with the chest pressed against the radiographic plate, with hands on hips and elbows pushed in mesical. The radiographer will ask the what planet you on video to be still and to take a deep breath and hold it.
Breath-holding after a deep breath reduces the possibility of a blurred image and also enhances the quality of the x-ray image. The lateral chest view side view crx be required to view further information in the chest. The patient stands sideways to the radiographic plate with arms elevated, and the x-ray is taken with the patient taking and holding a deep breath in. Q: Where can I find GP clinics? Click on the whta locations to find a GP clinic in your state or territory.
This article is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. If in doubt, HealthEngine recommends consulting with a registered health practitioner. Health Engine Patient Blog.
Tools Med Glossary Tools. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. Find a provider. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain? Family's Health. What is a chest x-ray? What can a chest x-ray diagnose? Chest x-rays are typically performed to: Investigate symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic and persistent cough, chest pain, chest injury or tue To monitor the progress of chronic medical conditions such as ter or heart failure As a screening test for employment, immigration or to join the defence force Chest x-rays are also used to disgnose lung issues, bone problems of the chest wall, and some tefm problems.
Related Articles. Get your flu shot early Jump to When is it ideal to getЕ. Need a health appointment? Find and book a doctor, dentist, physio and more ghe HealthEngine Find a practitioner.
Find a practitioner. Find practitioners near you and book what does ridge filler do next appointment online.
Get on top of your general health
Chest X-Ray (CXR) is a diagnostic test that uses radiation to make images of your lungs. Note that sometimes abbreviations and acronyms have several meanings. CXR may mean something different in your context. If you have any questions or concerns about anything regarding your health and treatment, you should talk to your doctor. Dec 13, †Ј Chest x-rays are typically performed to: Investigate symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic and persistent cough, chest pain, chest injury or fever To monitor the progress of chronic medical conditions such as cancer or heart failure As a screening test for employment, immigration or to join the defence force. CXR means Chest X-ray in medical contexts.
A chest radiograph , called a chest X-ray CXR , or chest film , is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures. Chest radiographs are the most common film taken in medicine. Like all methods of radiography , chest radiography employs ionizing radiation in the form of X-rays to generate images of the chest. The mean radiation dose to an adult from a chest radiograph is around 0. Chest radiographs are used to diagnose many conditions involving the chest wall, including its bones, and also structures contained within the thoracic cavity including the lungs , heart , and great vessels.
Pneumonia and congestive heart failure are very commonly diagnosed by chest radiograph. Chest radiographs are also used to screen for job-related lung disease in industries such as mining where workers are exposed to dust. For some conditions of the chest, radiography is good for screening but poor for diagnosis. When a condition is suspected based on chest radiography, additional imaging of the chest can be obtained to definitively diagnose the condition or to provide evidence in favor of the diagnosis suggested by initial chest radiography.
Unless a fractured rib is suspected of being displaced, and therefore likely to cause damage to the lungs and other tissue structures, x-ray of the chest is not necessary as it will not alter patient management. Different views also known as projections of the chest can be obtained by changing the relative orientation of the body and the direction of the x-ray beam.
The most common views are posteroanterior , anteroposterior , and lateral. In a posteroanterior PA view, the x-ray source is positioned so that the x-ray beam enters through the posterior back aspect of the chest and exits out of the anterior front aspect, where the beam is detected.
To obtain this view, the patient stands facing a flat surface behind which is an x-ray detector. A radiation source is positioned behind the patient at a standard distance most often 6 feet, 1,8m , and the x-ray beam is fired toward the patient. In anteroposterior AP views, the positions of the x-ray source and detector are reversed: the x-ray beam enters through the anterior aspect and exits through the posterior aspect of the chest. AP chest x-rays are harder to read than PA x-rays and are therefore generally reserved for situations where it is difficult for the patient to get an ordinary chest x-ray, such as when the patient is bedridden.
In this situation, mobile X-ray equipment is used to obtain a lying down chest x-ray known as a "supine film". As a result, most supine films are also AP. Lateral views of the chest are obtained in a similar fashion as the posteroanterior views, except in the lateral view, the patient stands with both arms raised and the left side of the chest pressed against a flat surface.
Required projections can vary by country and hospital, although an erect posteroanterior PA projection is typically the first preference. If this is not possible, then an anteroposterior view will be taken.
Further imaging depends on local protocols which is dependent on the hospital protocols, the availability of other imaging modalities and the preference of the image interpreter. In the UK, the standard chest radiography protocol is to take an erect posteroanterior view only and a lateral one only on request by a radiologist. Special projections include an AP in cases where the image needs to be obtained stat and with a portable device, particularly when a patient cannot be safely positioned upright.
Lateral decubitus may be used for visualization of air-fluid levels if an upright image cannot be obtained. Anteroposterior AP Axial Lordotic projects the clavicles above the lung fields, allowing better visualization of the apices which is extremely useful when looking for evidence of primary tuberculosis. In the average person, the diaphragm should be intersected by the 5th to 7th anterior ribs at the mid-clavicular line, and 9 to 10 posterior ribs should be viewable on a normal PA inspiratory film.
An increase in the number of viewable ribs implies hyperinflation, as can occur, for example, with obstructive lung disease or foreign body aspiration. A decrease implies hypoventilation, as can occur with restrictive lung disease , pleural effusions or atelectasis.
Underexpansion can also cause interstitial markings due to parenchymal crowding, which can mimic the appearance of interstitial lung disease. Enlargement of the right descending pulmonary artery can indirectly reflect changes of pulmonary hypertension , with a size greater than 16 mm abnormal in men and 15 mm in women. Appropriate penetration of the film can be assessed by faint visualization of the thoracic spines and lung markings behind the heart.
The right diaphragm is usually higher than the left, with the liver being situated beneath it in the abdomen. The minor fissure can sometimes be seen on the right as a thin horizontal line at the level of the fifth or sixth rib. Splaying of the carina can also suggest a tumor or process in the middle mediastinum or enlargement of the left atrium , with a normal angle of approximately 60 degrees.
The right paratracheal stripe is also important to assess, as it can reflect a process in the posterior mediastinum , in particular the spine or paraspinal soft tissues; normally it should measure 3 mm or less. Localization of lesions or inflammatory and infectious processes can be difficult to discern on chest radiograph, but can be inferenced by silhouetting and the hilum overlay sign with adjacent structures.
If either hemidiaphragm is blurred, for example, this suggests the lesion to be from the corresponding lower lobe. If the right heart border is blurred, than the pathology is likely in the right middle lobe, though a cavum deformity can also blur the right heard border due to indentation of the adjacent sternum. If the left heart border is blurred, this implies a process at the lingula.
A lung nodule is a discrete opacity in the lung which may be caused by:. Fluid in space between the lung and the chest wall is termed a pleural effusion. There needs to be at least 75 mL of pleural fluid in order to blunt the costophrenic angle on the lateral chest radiograph and mL of pleural fluid in order to blunt the costophrenic angle on the posteroanterior chest radiograph. On a lateral decubitus, amounts as small as 50ml of fluid are possible. Pleural effusions typically have a meniscus visible on an erect chest radiograph, but loculated effusions as occur with an empyema may have a lenticular shape the fluid making an obtuse angle with the chest wall.
Pleural thickening may cause blunting of the costophrenic angle, but is distinguished from pleural fluid by the fact that it occurs as a linear shadow ascending vertically and clinging to the ribs. The differential for diffuse shadowing is very broad and can defeat even the most experienced radiologist.
It is seldom possible to reach a diagnosis on the basis of the chest radiograph alone: high-resolution CT of the chest is usually required and sometimes a lung biopsy. The following features should be noted:.
Pleural effusions may occur with cancer, sarcoid, connective tissue diseases and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. The presence of a pleural effusion argues against pneumocystis pneumonia. Disease mimics are visual artifacts , normal anatomic structures or harmless variants that may simulate diseases and abnormalities.
A prominent thymus , which can give the impression of a widened mediastinum. The inferior skin folds of the supraclavicular fossa may give the impression of a periosteal reaction of the clavicle.
While chest radiographs are a relatively cheap and safe method of investigating diseases of the chest, there are a number of serious chest conditions that may be associated with a normal chest radiograph and other means of assessment may be necessary to make the diagnosis.
For example, a patient with an acute myocardial infarction may have a completely normal chest radiograph. Projectionally rendered CT scan , showing the transition of thoracic structures between the anteroposterior and lateral view.
A chest radiograph showing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A chest film after insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator , showing the shock generator in the upper left chest and the electrical lead inside the right heart. Note both radio-opaque coils along the device lead. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Projection X-ray of the chest.
A normal posteroanterior PA chest radiograph of someone with Interstitial Pneumonia. Dx and Sin stand for "right" and "left" respectively.
Chest film showing increased opacity in both lungs, indicative of pneumonia. Mettler, Walter Huda, Terry T. Retrieved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Radiology Masterclass. Retrieved 27 January PMC PMID JMD Books. Retrieved 9 February South African Journal of Radiology. ISSN CC BY 4. Medical imaging. Radiographic testing. Fluoroscopy Dental panoramic radiography X-ray motion analysis. Myocardial perfusion imaging.
Optical tomography Optical coherence tomography Confocal microscopy Endomicroscopy Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Acute stroke Pregnancy. Categories : Projectional radiography Thorax human anatomy. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Commons category link is on Wikidata.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons has media related to X-rays of the chest.