what is a pathological condition

Pathological lying, also known as mythomania and pseudologia fantastica, is a mental disorder in which the person habitually or compulsively lies.. It was first described in the medical literature in by Anton Delbruck []. Although it is a controversial topic, pathological lying has been defined as "falsification entirely disproportionate to any discernible end in view, may be extensive. pathological definition: 1. (of a person) unable to control part of their behaviour; unreasonable: 2. involving or relating. Learn more.

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Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. I've got a pathological fear of heights. Anthony's a pathological liar. Want to learn more? These how to use evoadvantage cheat in spore findings are in agreement with clinical studies. Katzman commenced clinical and pathological studies of elderly patients who were exhibiting signs of patholofical. Related word pathologically. Examples of pathological.

If these upper- and middle-class criminals are also pathologicalthen what hope is there for any of us! From the Cambridge English Corpus. To judge whether an individual's behavior is ' pathological ,' we need to know the likely outcome of the behavior in subsequent developmental periods.

The relationship of dissociative experiences to hypnotizability and to pathological reactions patholofical traumas is discussed, although the interpretation of those correlations is questioned. Most chronic diseases appear to have more than one cause - and most risk factors, more than one pathological effect. The stress system has evolved to promote successful adaptation across the life span, but disruptions in its functioning may increase the risk of pathological outcomes.

We hypothesize that this represents a pathological deviation of the mechanisms that normally regulate brain growth. However, such displays of anger may be diagnosed as pathological if not properly understood.

First, dispose of a pathological case: when there exists a very large complete bipartite subgraph. Finally, several variants of path analysis have been used to examine the course of pathological alcohol involvement over time.

Consequently, we also examine the effects of pathological alcohol involvement on later role transitions and role attainment. Toward that end, we will discuss some implications of our research for interventions designed to prevent and ameliorate pathological alcohol involvement in young adulthood. In addition, the pathological what to expect after a laparoscopic hysterectomy of the heart are of particular interest.

Adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells within different tissues appears to follow this generalised pattern under both physiological and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, mitochondrial dysfunction, even if it is a secondary event, might impact on the pathological processes.

What is a pathological condition all examples of pathological. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press conditon its licensors. Translations of pathological in Chinese Traditional. See more. Need a translator?

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In mathematics, a pathological object is one which possesses deviant, irregular, or counterintuitive property, in such a way that distinguishes it from what is conceived as a typical object in the same category. The opposite of pathological is well-behaved. Aug 27,  · Though pathological lying has been recognized for more than a century, there’s not yet a clear universal definition of the condition. Some pathological lying may result from a mental condition. Apr 02,  · Like alcohol or drug addiction, pathological gambling is a long-term disorder that tends to get worse without treatment. Even with treatment, it's common to start gambling again (relapse). However, people with pathological gambling can do very well with the right treatment.

In mathematics , a pathological object is one which possesses deviant, irregular, or counterintuitive property, in such a way that distinguishes it from what is conceived as a typical object in the same category. The opposite of pathological is well-behaved. A classic example of a pathological structure is the Weierstrass function , which is continuous everywhere but differentiable nowhere. In fact, by the Baire category theorem , one can show that continuous functions are generically nowhere differentiable.

In layman's terms, the majority of functions are nowhere differentiable, and relatively few can ever be described or studied. In general, most useful functions also have some sort of physical basis or practical application, which means that they cannot be pathological at the level of hard mathematics or logic; aside from certain limiting cases like the delta distribution , they tend to be quite well-behaved and intuitive.

Logic sometimes makes monsters. For half a century we have seen a mass of bizarre functions which appear to be forced to resemble as little as possible honest functions which serve some purpose. More of continuity, or less of continuity, more derivatives, and so forth. Indeed, from the point of view of logic, these strange functions are the most general; on the other hand those which one meets without searching for them, and which follow simple laws appear as a particular case which does not amount to more than a small corner.

In former times when one invented a new function it was for a practical purpose; today one invents them purposely to show up defects in the reasoning of our fathers and one will deduce from them only that. If logic were the sole guide of the teacher, it would be necessary to begin with the most general functions, that is to say with the most bizarre. It is the beginner that would have to be set grappling with this teratologic museum.

This highlights the fact that the term pathological and correspondingly, the word well-behaved is subjective, context-dependent, and subject to wearing off. Also, the quotation shows how mathematics often progresses via counter-examples to what is thought intuitive or expected.

For instance, the "lack of derivatives" mentioned is intimately connected with current study of magnetic reconnection events in solar plasma. One of the most notorious pathologies in topology is the Alexander horned sphere , a counterexample showing that topologically embedding the sphere S 2 in R 3 may fail to separate the space cleanly. As a counter-example, it motivated the extra condition of tameness , which suppresses the kind of wild behavior the horned sphere exhibits.

Like many other pathologies, the horned sphere in a sense plays on infinitely fine, recursively generated structure, which in the limit violates ordinary intuition. In this case, the topology of an ever-descending chain of interlocking loops of continuous pieces of the sphere in the limit fully reflects that of the common sphere, and one would expect the outside of it, after an embedding, to work the same. Yet it does not: it fails to be simply connected.

Mathematicians and those in related sciences very frequently speak of whether a mathematical object—a function , a set , a space of one sort or another—is "well-behaved". While the term has no fixed formal definition, it generally refers to the quality of satisfying a list of prevailing conditions, [6] which might be dependent on context, mathematical interests, fashion, and taste.

To ensure that an object is "well-behaved", mathematicians introduce further axioms to narrow down the domain of study. This has the benefit of making analysis easier, but produces a loss of generality of any conclusions reached. For example, non-Euclidean geometries were once considered to be ill-behaved, but have since become common objects of study from 19th century and onwards.

In both pure and applied mathematics e. The opposite case is usually labeled "pathological". It is not unusual to have situations in which most cases in terms of cardinality or measure are pathological, but the pathological cases will not arise in practice—unless constructed deliberately.

The term "well-behaved" is generally applied in an absolute sense—either something is well-behaved or it is not. For example:. Pathological examples often have some undesirable or unusual properties that make it difficult to contain or explain within a theory.

Such pathological behaviors often prompt new investigation and research, which leads to new theory and more general results. Some important historical examples of this are:. At the time of their discovery, each of these was considered highly pathological; today, each has been assimilated into modern mathematical theory. These examples prompt their observers to correct their beliefs or intuitions, and in some cases necessitate a reassessment of foundational definitions and concepts.

Over the course of history, they have led to more correct, more precise, and more powerful mathematics. For example, the Dirichlet function is Lebesgue integrable, and convolution with test functions is used to approximate any locally integrable function by smooth functions. Whether a behavior is pathological is by definition subject to personal intuition.

Pathologies depend on context, training, and experience, and what is pathological to one researcher may very well be standard behavior to another. Pathological examples can show the importance of the assumptions in a theorem. For example, in statistics , the Cauchy distribution does not satisfy the central limit theorem , even though its symmetric bell-shape appears similar to many distributions which do; it fails the requirement to have a mean and standard deviation which exist and that are finite.

Some of the best-known paradoxes , such as Banach—Tarski paradox and Hausdorff paradox , are based on the existence of non-measurable sets. Mathematicians, unless they take the minority position of denying the axiom of choice , are in general resigned to living with such sets. In computer science , pathological has a slightly different sense with regard to the study of algorithms. Here, an input or set of inputs is said to be pathological if it causes atypical behavior from the algorithm, such as a violation of its average case complexity , or even its correctness.

For example, hash tables generally have pathological inputs: sets of keys that collide on hash values. The term is often used pejoratively, as a way of dismissing such inputs as being specially designed to break a routine that is otherwise sound in practice compare with Byzantine.

On the other hand, awareness of pathological inputs is important, as they can be exploited to mount a denial-of-service attack on a computer system.

Also, the term in this sense is a matter of subjective judgment as with its other senses. Given enough run time, a sufficiently large and diverse user community or other factors , an input which may be dismissed as pathological could in fact occur as seen in the first test flight of the Ariane 5.

A similar but distinct phenomenon is that of exceptional objects and exceptional isomorphisms , which occurs when there are a "small" number of exceptions to a general pattern such as a finite set of exceptions to an otherwise infinite rule. By contrast, in cases of pathology, often most or almost all instances of a phenomenon are pathological e.

Subjectively, exceptional objects such as the icosahedron or sporadic simple groups are generally considered "beautiful", unexpected examples of a theory, while pathological phenomena are often considered "ugly", as the name implies.

Accordingly, theories are usually expanded to include exceptional objects. For example, the exceptional Lie algebras are included in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras : the axioms are seen as good, the exceptional objects as unexpected but valid. By contrast, pathological examples are instead taken to point out a shortcoming in the axioms, requiring stronger axioms to rule them out.

In general, one may study the more general theory, including the pathologies, which may provide its own simplifications the real numbers have properties very different from the rationals, and likewise continuous maps have very different properties from smooth ones , but also the narrower theory, from which the original examples were drawn.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mathematical phenomena whose properties are counterintuitive. It is not to be confused with good behaviour. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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