What is paint and how is it made?
Latex paint, the most widely used paint in homes by do-it-yourself homeowners, is composed of solids and liquids. All paint specifications state how much of the paint is solids or liquids. For example, in one gallon of flat paint, percent of the weight might be devoted to solids. All paints generally have four main ingredients -- pigments, binders, solvents (liquids) and additives. Pigments provide color and hide, while binders work to "bind" .
Contemporary paints and coatings consist of wht compounds uniquely formulated to fulfill the varied requirements of hundreds of thousands of piant. Paints o coatings have evolved from the simple Early Man colors on cave walls into a primary protective barrier between our possessions and our environment. See how, below. Paint Ч the group of emulsions mwde consisting of pigments suspended in a liquid medium for use as decorative or protective coatings Ч made its earliest appearance about 30, years ago.
Cave dwellers used crude paints to leave behind the graphic representations madd their lives iss even today decorate the walls of their ancient rock dwellings. The paint and coatings industry, however, had to wait for the Industrial Revolution before it became a recognized element of the American national economy.
The first recorded paint mill in America was reportedly established in Boston in by Thomas Child. A century and a half later, inD. Mechanization was making the manufacturing process accessible to a larger and less specialized group of entrepreneurs.
The weight of prepared paint made it pxint to transport, so a decentralized structure of small manufacturers in discrete markets dominated the industry until the mids.
Besides mechanizing and professionalizing the paint industry, the Industrial Revolution also created vast new markets for paints and coatings. Virtually every product created on an assembly line Ч from the Model T Ford to the latest-model television Ч makes extensive use of paints and coatings to beautify, protect and extend the life of the manufactured goods. As soon as the impact and potential risks of various paint components have been quantified, paint manufacturers act.
Historically, the industry readily responded to environmental and health concerns by altering the chemistry of its products to control risks. Paint manufacturers started replacing lead pigments in some paints, for example, before World War II, when safer alternatives became available.
Industry consensus standards limiting the use of lead pigments date back to the s, when manufacturers led a voluntary effort to remove lead from house paints. Common house paints have contained little, if any, lead since then. Inwhat does f f s mean Consumer Product Safety Commission banned the use of lead in consumer paint.
McGarry and Dan Calkins. Martin Dwyer. Application Developer. Rachel Wright. Mon, Apr 19, History of Paint. Mid-Late s. Early s. Before Maade. Copy link. Copy Copied. Powered by Social Colorado potato beetle how to get rid.
Jun 27, †Ј What is Paint Made of? There are four main components in paint: resin, additives, solvent, and pigment. The resin is the binder that holds all the pigments together. It allows the product to adhere to the surface is it painted too. A water-based paint uses acrylic emulsion polymers to bind. What is paint made of? Pigment Ц to provide colour, hiding and control gloss.. Pigments are usually divided into two groups. One called СPrime Resin Ц the binder to hold the pigment particles together and provide adhesion to the surface painted.. Waterborne Solvent Ц to act as a carrier for. Pigments provide the color in paint. Common pigments include titanium dioxide, which is white, chrome green oxide, yellow and red iron oxide, zinc oxide, and carbon black. Pigments are powders that tend to clump together, and manufacturers use various methods to mill and separate them prior to adding them to the paint mixture.
To most people, paint is the colour on the walls of their home, the colour of their car, boat or caravan. Paint is more than just the colour though; it is a material that is applied as a liquid and dries by a variety of chemical processes to a solid. Pigments are usually divided into two groups. Waterborne paints most often use acrylic emulsion polymers as binders. These come in a wide variety of types and combinations. Common acrylic polymer types are based on monomers such as methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate.
Solventbased resins come in a very wide range of types. Urethane alkyds often used in clear varnishes. Our paint is generally manufactured in batch lots from litres for special products and colours to 10, litres for mainline white products.
Ingredients are typically measured by weight on scales, and in some cases by volume in calibrated vats and graduated measuring containers. For batches larger than about litres the vats are loaded onto load cells connected to accurate electronic scales. Where greater accuracy of small additions is required highly accurate floor scales are used. Pigments are powders of typically small size that tend to stick together to form clumps or agglomerates.
These must be broken down into separate particles that must then be wetted by resin and additives to stop them sticking together again. This is the process of dispersion. High speed mixers are used for combining materials and dispersing most pigments.
These machines rotate stainless steel serrated discs of up to 60cm diameter, at up to about rpm. Pigments are added slowly, from containers of 10 kg up to kg, to a portion of the liquid paint components, with the mixer running, to form the mill-base. Certain pigments are more difficult to disperse and require ball milling, bead milling or bar milling.
Ball mills are used for small batches of difficult to disperse mill-bases. Ball mills are large porcelain lined rotating drums containing golf ball sized porcelain balls.
Rolling and tumbling of the balls provides sufficient force to break up agglomerates. Bead mills are used for large batches and can maintain semi-continuous output. Operation is similar to a ball mill but the vessel is smaller and balls are 3mm diameter zirconium dioxide beads, and mixing is at a higher speed producing more rapid output.
Bar mills are especially useful for highly viscous thick mill-bases. The mill-base is forced through a small clearance between a rotating water cooled roller and a bar pushed against the roller. In a separate, larger, vat the rest of the paint resin, solvent and additives is combined and mixed.
This is called the let-down. When the let-down and the mill-base are completed, the mill-base is added with stirring to the let-down. At this stage, if required by the formulation, any final additions are made and added in. Product quality is monitored throughout the manufacturing process by the Product Verification Laboratory.
Critical ingredients are tested before manufacturing starts. The mill-base may be tested for dispersion; if necessary further processing may be required. The let-down may be tested to ensure it is sufficiently mixed. The completed batch mill-base plus let-down and any final additions is thoroughly tested by the Product Verification Laboratory. These final tests evaluate properties such as degree of dispersion, viscosity consistency , density, hiding, tint strength and colour, application, dry time, gloss and dry film appearance.
When testing is completed the batch is passed for canning. During canning two samples are taken; a retain sample, which is stored in case it is needed for future reference, and a Final Inspection sample.
After this final stage of testing is complete the batch is passed for use in the warehouse and dispatch to branches as required. As the water in these paints evaporates the resin and pigment particles get closer and closer together until they begin to touch each other. When the resin particles touch each other and the pigments, they stick together and fuse into a tough elastic solid, which we recognise as the paint film. Solventborne enamel paints, such as Resene Super Gloss, are based on alkyd resin dissolved in solvent mineral turps.
When the solvent evaporates the first stage is the formation of a tacky lacquer. The alkyd resin progressively reacts with oxygen from the atmosphere and polymerises to form a hard, tough coating. Two component protective coating paints are unreactive on their own, but when mixed together undergo a chemical reaction.
The chemical reaction takes a few hours depending upon temperature and results in an extremely tough, hard coating with great adhesion. These paints generally require specialist surface preparation and application, and are often used in extreme environments.
The boundaries between waterborne paints and solventborne enamels, and other reactive coatings, are becoming blurred as new technologies develop. For example, Resene Enamacryl and Resene Lustacryl consist of waterborne emulsion resins and chemistry that produces polymerisation of the dried film similar to solventborne enamels. Can't find what you're looking for?
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What is paint and how is it made? Resene Paints Ltd Ч www. Water, propylene glycol, surfactants, dispersants, defoamer and biocide are measured out and added to a dispersion vat.
This is the start of the mill-base. White pigment titanium dioxide and extender pigment calcite, talc, barytes are added in a predetermined order with the disperser running. The disperser blade speed is gradually increased as pigment is loaded. Water is also added in stages to maintain optimum viscosity for mill-base dispersion. The finished mill-base is then tested.
Meanwhile in a larger let-down vat, the emulsion resin component is measured out. This has defoamer, thickener and coalescent solvent added with stirring and is mixed for about 30 minutes.
When both mill-base and let-down are completed, the mill-base is pumped into the let-down, while the hydraulic mixers attached to the vat maintain good agitation. Once all the mill-base is added, and the mill-base vat washed out, the nearly completed paint is mixed for about 30 minutes. Then additional thickeners and remaining additives are measured out and mixed into the batch. Depending upon the results of testing, the batch may be fine tuned for viscosity and mixed for a further period of time.
A predetermined series of tests are carried out on a sample of the batch. Where tint strength and colour are specified, the batch will also be tested for properties such as tint acceptance and compatibility with tinters. When the batch passes through the primary stage of testing it is approved for canning and then packed into a specified series of containers.
Retain and Final Inspection samples are collected. When all tests are completed, and results recorded and checked, the Final Inspection Laboratory issues a release from quarantine to the warehouse. When the Final Inspection Laboratory request is received the batch is moved into warehouse general stock for dispatch as required to meet orders. Solvents, alkyd resin, dispersing resin, dispersants and anti-settling aids are added to the mill-base vat.
The mill-base is dispersed by the high speed mixer for about 20 minutes to predisperse the pigment. After premixing, the mil-base is pumped through a horizontal bead mill. A sample is taken to test dispersion. Depending on the result the mill-base may be further bead milled. Typically several passes are required to ensure all the agglomerates are broken up.
Meanwhile in a larger let-down vat, alkyd resin, solvent, driers metal soaps and anti-skinning agents are measured out and mixed together to form the let-down. When both mill-base and let-down are completed, the mill-base is pumped into the let-down while the mixture is stirred. Stirring continues for about 30 minute to ensure a uniform mixture.