Mar 21, · Viral liver infection is the inflammation of liver caused by hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D and E. It is the most common type and highly contagious. Viral liver infections cause cirrhosis and liver failure. Non-viral liver infection is inflammation of liver caused by agents other than viruses such as bacteria, worms and parasites. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
Liver infection is caused by different types of infectious agents which cause inflammation afgect liver and is known as hepatitis. Inflammation means swelling of the tissues as a result of injury or infection. If left untreated, hepatitis causes liver damage and further liver failure.
Liver infection is of two main types as viral and non-viral liver infections. It is the most common type and highly contagious. Viral liver infections cause cirrhosis and liver failure. Non-viral liver infection is inflammation of liver caused by agents other than viruses such as bacteria, worms and parasites. This type of liver infection has low incidence, is less common and is not contagious. Fungal infections affect immunocompromised patients whay.
Let us understand the details of each types and sub-types of liver infections. These viruses are unrelated to each other. Viral inflammation is mostly caused by Hepatitis A, B and C viruses. These three types of viruses cause acute hepatitis. However, B and C can cause chronic hepatitis which lasts for a long time. Patients with liver infection due to hepatitis B or C have severe liver damage due to cirrhosis. Although each type is transmitted in a different infectiins, the symptoms for fafect hepatitis viruses infectikns nearly similar which includes:.
Hepatitis A virus HAV enters the body through intake of water or food contaminated with faeces of patient infected with hepatitis A and consumption of raw fish food. This virus is observed in developing countries where there is poor sanitation. It is most likely contracted while travelling to such countries. HAV causes acute and short term liver inflammation.
It causes mild hepatitis which resolves within two months. In some rare cases it progresses to cause liver failure. Hepatitis A virus ifections detected by blood test where antibodies to HAV indicate presence of infection. It is a short term disease hence only bed rest is recommended. The infection clears on its own within one or two months. Patients are advised to take rest, drink plenty of liquids, eat healthy diet and avoid intake afgect alcohol.
Hepatitis B virus is seen all over the world and is endemic in South East Asian countries. It is responsible for most of the liver inflammations and liver damage. It enters the body through use of contaminated needles, due to contact with infected blood and other body fluids such as vaginal discharge and semen.
In addition, the risk is increased while having unprotected sex with HBV infected partner and using HBV infected razors and needles. It is also transmitted from infected mother to her baby.
It causes both acute and chronic liver infections. Acute infection is short term where the infection lasts for few weeks live the body is able to fight off the infection. Healthy adults and children are able to recover from HBV infections without any medication. Chronic infection is a long lasting infection and is what is the meaning of aligned. It causes severe inflammation which hinders what is a sist in your ovaries normal functioning of the liver.
If left untreated, it leads to further complications such as cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. The patient has to undergo physical examination. Further, both medical history of the patient and his family is noted. Regular blood tests Liver function tests are done.
Liver biopsy may be advised. Paracentesis is done where what viral infections affect the liver abdominal fluid is removed and tested to determine the cause of its accumulation. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B infection.
While chronic hepatitis is treated with antiviral medicines. There are six treatment options available for chronic hepatitis infection as alpha-interferon, pegylated interferon, Adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine and lamivudine.
The interferons are injectable forms while the drugs are to be taken orally. Oral medication helps to suppress the virus growth. The duration of medications differs for different patients.
Most of the patients show good response to medicines. There is possibility of side effects due to what viral infections affect the liver of medicines. Hepatitis C virus causes both acute and chronic hepatitis of the liver. Infection by HCV is curable. Hepatitis C infection remains asymptomatic for decades.
The symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and prevention are same as that of Hepatitis B liver infection. A patient with chronic Hepatitis C liver infection will be advised to take antiviral medicines such as interferon, with or without antiviral drug ribavirin.
Treatment is based on its subtype genotype of HCV. These antivirals suppress the growth of virus and are very effective. The duration of medication differs for different patients. They cure the infection within weeks. These medicines qhat very expensive.
Hepatitis D virus is not vlral worldwide and occurs only in some places. It causes inflammation of the liver. It infects liver cells only in the presence of hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis D virus has no independent existence and requires hepatitis Liber virus for its how to get bpo projects in india. It spreads the same way as Hepatitis B infection.
It causes acute or chronic or vrial types of infection. Treatment of Hepatitis D is with peginterferon alpha-2a Pegsys along with medicines against Hepatitis B virus. Prevention is by vaccinating against Hepatitis B virus. There is no vaccine inffections Hepatitis D virus.
Hepatitis E virus causes acute hepatitis. Infectoins is transmitted through what does mi amorcito mean or food contaminated with faeces of person suffering from Hepatitis E infection. It also spreads on eating undercooked pork or deer.
Hepatitis Whxt virus is seen all over the world with a high incidence in developing countries where sanitation is poor. The risk factors, diagnosis and treatment are similar to hepatitis A infection. There is no ihfections against Hepatitis E virus although some reports mention it being developed and used in Infectoins.
Certain bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Oiver aureus can infect liver to cause hepatitis. They cause both acute and chronic type of non-viral liver infection.
These bacteria enter liver through contaminated livsr and food. They cause abscesses and lesions on the liver. Symptoms include fever, pain in the upper right quadrant of the liver and anoxeria. Diagnosis includes liver function tests and microbiological cultures. It also includes radiological investigations or CT scan.
ERCP or colonoscopy is done to estimate the cause of liver abscesses. Treatment includes antibiotic medication specific to the type of organism causing it and drainage infdctions abscesses. Liver is infected by different types of infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, parasites and worms.
It is important to recognize the symptoms and start treatment immediately to avoid severe damage to liver in future. This article contains incorrect information. This article does not have the information I am looking for. Ask A Doctor Now. This article on Epainassist. We follow a strict editorial policy and we have a zero-tolerance policy regarding any level of plagiarism. Our articles are resourced from reputable online pages. This article may contains scientific references.
The numbers in the parentheses 1, 2, 3 are clickable links to peer-reviewed scientific papers. Was this article helpful? Yes No. I Have a Medical Question. Ask A Doctor Now Wat you are facing a medical emergency, call your local emergency services wyat, or visit the nearest ER or urgent care facility. Your Affetc.
May 16, · Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is a systemic infection that frequently involves the liver. May 09, · Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis. Hepatitis A is. Acute viral hepatitis can cause anything from a minor flu-like illness to fatal liver mybajaguide.commes there are no symptoms. The severity of symptoms and speed of recovery vary considerably, depending on the particular virus and on the person's response to the infection.
Filed under Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Lawrence S. Friedman served as an author of this chapter on previous editions of this textbook. The liver serves as the initial site of filtration of absorbed intestinal luminal contents and is particularly susceptible to contact with microbial antigens of all varieties. In addition to infection by viruses see Chapters 77 to 81 , the liver can be affected by 1 spread of bacterial or parasitic infection from outside the liver; 2 primary infection by spirochetal, protozoal, helminthic, or fungal organisms; or 3 systemic effects of bacterial or granulomatous infections.
A number of extrahepatic infections can lead to derangements of hepatic function, ranging from mild abnormalities of liver biochemical tests to frank jaundice and, rarely, hepatic failure. Toxic shock syndrome is a multisystem disease caused by toxic shock syndrome toxins, which are superantigens that cause T cell activation and massive cytokine release.
Originally described in association with serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus , this syndrome is now more frequently a complication of group A streptococcal infections, particularly necrotizing fasciitis. Typical findings include a scarlatiniform rash, mucosal hyperemia, hypotension, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Histologic findings in the liver include microabscesses and granulomas. The diagnosis is confirmed by culture of toxigenic Streptococcus pyogenes or S. For wound infections or necrotizing fasciitis, surgical intervention is critical.
Clindamycin, in conjunction with another active agent, is recommended to interfere with bacterial toxin production. Antibiotics effective against S. Intravenous immunoglobulin may have a benefit in the setting of toxic shock associated with S. Clostridial myonecrosis involving Clostridium perfringens usually is a mixed anaerobic infection that results in the rapid development of local wound pain, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The skin lesions become discolored and even bullous, and gas gangrene spreads rapidly, leading to a high mortality rate.
Hepatic involvement does not appear to affect mortality. The presence of clostridial bacteria portends a poor prognosis in persons with cirrhosis. Actinomycosis is caused most commonly by Actinomyces israelii , a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. Common presenting manifestations of actinomycotic liver abscess include fever, abdominal pain, and anorexia with weight loss.
Anemia, leukocytosis, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level are nearly universal. Radiographic findings are nonspecific; multiple abscesses may be seen in both lobes of the liver. The diagnosis is based on aspiration of an abscess cavity and either visualization of characteristic sulfur granules or positive results on an anaerobic culture.
Most abscesses resolve with prolonged courses of intravenous penicillin or oral tetracycline. Large abscesses can be drained percutaneously or resected surgically. Hepatic invasion in adult human Listeria monocytogenes infection is uncommon. One report described thirty-four cases of listeriosis involving the liver, ranging from solitary to multiple abscesses and acute and granulomatous hepatitis.
Predisposing conditions include immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, and underlying liver disease, including cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, or chronic hepatitis. The diagnosis of disseminated listerial infection is based on a positive culture result from blood or isolation from an aspirate in the case of a liver abscess. Treatment is with ampicillin or penicillin, often with gentamicin for synergy.
Several case reports have described cholestatic hepatitis attributable to enteric infection with Shigella. Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi , is a systemic infection that frequently involves the liver. Elevation of serum aminotransferase levels is common, whereas the serum bilirubin level may rise in a minority of cases. Hepatic damage by S. Endotoxin may produce focal necrosis, a periportal mononuclear infiltrate, and Kupffer cell hyperplasia in the liver.
These changes resemble those seen in gram-negative sepsis. Characteristic typhoid nodules scattered throughout the liver are the result of profound hypertrophy and proliferation of Kupffer cells. The suggestion has been made that severe typhoid fever with jaundice and encephalopathy can be differentiated from acute liver failure by the presence of an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, mild hypoprothrombinemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatomegaly, and an aspartate aminotransferase AST level greater than the alanine aminotransferase ALT level.
As in typhoid fever, abnormalities in liver biochemical tests, particularly serum aminotransferase levels, with or without hepatomegaly, are common. Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica manifests as ileocolitis in children and as terminal ileitis or mesenteric adenitis in adults.
Arthritis, cellulitis, erythema nodosum, and septicemia may complicate Yersinia infection. Most patients with complicated disease have an underlying comorbid condition, such as diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, or hemochromatosis. Excess tissue iron, in particular, may be a predisposing factor because growth of the Yersinia bacterium is enhanced by iron. The subacute septicemic form of the disease resembles typhoid fever or malaria. Multiple abscesses are distributed diffusely in the liver and spleen.
In some cases, the occurrence of Y. Fluoroquinolones are the preferred antibiotics. The most common hepatic complication of gonococcal infection is the Fitz-Hugh—Curtis syndrome, a perihepatitis that is believed to result from direct spread of the infection from the pelvis see later. The pain may be confused with that of acute cholecystitis or pleurisy. Most patients have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease. The syndrome is distinguished from gonococcal bacteremia by a characteristic friction rub over the liver and negative blood culture results.
The diagnosis is made by vaginal culture for gonococci. The overall prognosis of gonococcal infection appears to be unaffected by the presence of perihepatitis. Involvement of the liver does not influence clinical outcome. Liver histologic changes include microvesicular steatosis and focal necrosis; organisms can be seen occasionally.
The diagnosis is confirmed by direct fluorescence of antibody in the serum or sputum or of antigen in the urine. Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-borne and water-borne gram-negative bacterium that is found predominantly in Southeast Asia.
The clinical spectrum of melioidosis ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant septicemia with involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Histologic changes in the liver include inflammatory infiltrates, multiple microabscesses, and focal necrosis. Organisms can be visualized with a Giemsa stain of a liver biopsy specimen.
Brucellosis may be acquired from infected pigs, cattle, goats, and sheep Brucella suis , Brucella abortus , Brucella melitensis , and Brucella ovis , respectively and typically manifests as an acute febrile illness. Hepatic abnormalities are seen in a majority of infected persons, and jaundice may be present in severe cases. Typically, multiple noncaseating hepatic granulomas are found in liver biopsy specimens; less often, focal mononuclear infiltration of the portal tracts or lobules is seen.
Surgical drainage may be required for management of Brucella abscesses. The combination of streptomycin and doxycycline is the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Infection by Coxiella burnetii , typically acquired by inhalation of animal dusts, causes the clinical syndrome of Q fever, which is characterized by relapsing fevers, headache, myalgias, malaise, pneumonitis, and culture-negative endocarditis.
Liver involvement is common. The histologic hallmark in the liver is the presence of characteristic fibrin ring granulomas. The diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing for complement-fixing antibodies. Endemic to Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram-negative coccobacillus that causes an acute febrile illness accompanied by jaundice, hemolysis, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Centrilobular necrosis of the liver and splenic infarction may occur.
Prompt treatment with chloramphenicol in combination with penicillin, clindamycin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents fatal complications. Bacillary angiomatosis is an infectious disorder that primarily affects persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS or other immunodeficiency states.
The causative agents have been identified as the gram-negative bacilli Bartonella henselae and, in some cases, Bartonella quintana. Bacillary angiomatosis is characterized most commonly by multiple blood-red papular skin lesions, but disseminated infection with or without skin involvement also has been described.
Additional manifestations include persistent fever, bacteremia, and sepsis. Hepatic infection should be suspected when serum aminotransferase levels are elevated in the absence of other explanations. Hepatic infection in persons with bacillary angiomatosis may manifest as peliosis hepatis, or blood-filled cysts see Chapter Histologically, peliosis in patients with AIDS is characterized by an inflammatory myxoid stroma containing clumps of bacilli and dilated capillaries surrounding the blood-filled peliotic cysts.
Increasingly, diagnosis of Bartonella infection is by polymerase chain reaction PCR -based methods. For visceral infection, prolonged treatment with erythromycin or doxycycline should be administered.
Jaundice may complicate systemic sepsis caused by gram-negative or gram-positive organisms. The magnitude of the jaundice does not correlate with mortality. Results of cultures of liver biopsy specimens usually are negative. Although perihepatitis was first associated with gonococcal salpingo-oophoritis see earlier , it is now most frequently associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
The diagnosis can be made by direct visualization at laparoscopy or laparotomy and supported by pathologic demonstration of endometritis, salpingitis, and microbiologic detection of C. Liver biochemical test results are generally normal.
The treatment of choice is a single dose of azithromycin or seven days of doxycycline. Mortality from Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a systemic tick-borne rickettsial illness, has decreased considerably as a result of prompt recognition of the classic maculopapular rash in association with fever and an exposure history.
A small subset of patients, however, present with multiorgan manifestations and have a high mortality rate. Hepatic involvement is frequent in multiorgan disease. In one postmortem study, rickettsiae were identified in the portal triads of eight of nine fatal cases. Portal tract inflammation, portal vasculitis, and sinusoidal erythrophagocytosis were consistent findings, but hepatic necrosis was negligible.
The predominant clinical manifestation was jaundice; elevations of serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels varied. Jaundice probably results from a combination of inflammatory bile ductular obstruction and hemolysis and is associated with increased mortality. Ehrlichiae are rickettsiae that parasitize leukocytes. In the United States, human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused principally by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and, less often, by Ehrlichia canis.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.